Specificity vs Adaptation

glenn'a adaptation vs specificity

From the desk of Coach Glenn Pendlay

Everyone knows how to make the body adapt.  Simply do an exercise that you have not done before.  Or do several sets in a rep range that is outside the norm.  You will get sore, but over the next few days the soreness will go away, and when you repeat the exercise again and again, you will have less soreness each time.  Eventually, you will have none.  The body has adapted.

But as weightlifters, we do the same exercises over and over again.  Not exactly ideal for adaptation.  But if all you do is snatch and clean and jerk with near maximal weights, it is ideal for SPECIFICITY.   Every adaptation that your body makes will be perfectly suited to the task of heavy snatches and clean and jerks.

If you add heavy squats to the mix, it will surely help make your legs strong.  But, the increased leg strength will not be perfectly suited to the snatch and clean and jerk.  Squats do not occur at the same speed as the snatch, the force curve you need to apply with your legs is not the same as the force curve in a snatch, and the range of motion in the squat is not the same as in a snatch.  It is the same with every assistance exercise that we do.  Doing things other than heavy singles in the competition lifts allows us to greatly increase the adaptations in our bodies, but those assistance exercises also cause the adaptations to be less than perfectly suited to the performance of maximal lifts in the snatch and clean and jerk.  So there is a trade-off between adaptation and specificity.  What is great for one, is bad for the other.

Abajiev* was a proponent of training with a short list of exercises.  He pared down the 50 or 60 exercises used by the Russians until he was left with only the competition lifts, front squats, and the power versions of the competitive lifts.  But even that was not as far as he wanted to go.  He theorized that the PERFECT training system should be maximal singles in the snatch and clean and jerk, and nothing else.  No squats, no front squats, no pulls.  He wanted to try this but he said the people who were paying him were paying for a proven system and he was not sure that a system without squats would work.  His system WITH squats definitely worked, so to make sure he kept producing he continued with the proven system.

Glenn Pendlay
Glenn Pendlay
Glenn Pendlay is a World-Class Weightlifting coach accredited as a Level-5 USA Weightlifting Coach, the USA's highest accreditation for Olympic lifting coaches. Glenn has produced over 90 national champions, over 20 medalists in international competition, and his athletes have broken as many as 10 American records in a single year.

Glenn has kindly contributed to ISST by giving consent to publish this article which was originally published at Glenn’s Blog.

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Sources

Glenn’s Original Article

*Ivan Nikolov Abadjiev

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